Background: Our aim was to investigate the pathologies in the hernia sac in adults, and the frequency of malignancy as well as to confirm the necessity of maintaining the current applications in histological examination of the hernia sac.
Methods: Patients who were operated for hernia in our clinic from 2013 to 2019 were included in the study. Patient data were evaluated retrospectively. We divided the patients into four groups, according to the type of hernia. We evaluated the demographic characteristics of the patients, the pathologies within the hernia sac, histopathological examination outcomes of the hernia sac and clinical features of malignancy in patients with malignancy.
Results: A total number of 556 adult patients underwent inguinal, femoral, umbilical or incisional hernia repair in our hospital. Nine patients (0.61%) had malignancy in the hernia sac. Three out of nine patients (33%) had no preoperative diagnosis of malignancy. Six patients (67%) had a known history of malignancy. Two tumors were located in the inguinal (22.0%), six tumors in the incisional (67%), and one in the umbilical (11%) hernia sacs. Among these, 56% were of gastrointestinal, 22% of gynecological, 11% of breast and 11% of epididymis origin. Most of the other pathologies found in the hernia sac were herniated bowel segments, lipomas and omentum.
Conclusion: Since the hernia sac might be the first clue for an underlying cancer, if abnormal pathological findings are detected during surgery, histopathological examination should be performed to exclude malignancy. The purpose of histological examination is to detect a hidden malignancy