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Arch Iran Med. 2017;20(3): 0.
PMID: 28287810
Scopus ID: 85014591951
  Abstract View: 1311
  PDF Download: 850

Original Article

Evaluation of Initial Respiratory Support Strategies in VLBW Neonates with RDS

Seyyed Abolfazl Afjeh*, Mohammad Kazem Sabzehei, Maryam Khoshnood Shariati, Ahmad Reza Shamshiri, Fatemeh Esmaili

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) has brought about a significant change in care and treatment of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates. The present study was designed and conducted to evaluate different strategies of initial respiratory support (IRS) in VLBW neonates hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).

METHODS: This prospective study was conducted over three years (March 21, 2011 to March 20, 2014). Each eligible VLBW baby with RDS diagnosis received a specific IRS, including room air (RA), oxygen therapy (O2 RX), n.CPAP, NIPPV, MV ± SURF, based on clinical evaluation; then, the next strategies were selected based on the disease progression. Obtained data was entered in SPSS and the groups were compared for disease consequences or death. Then, contributing factors to the failure of NIV strategies, and the need for endotracheal mechanical ventilation (eMV) were determined.
RESULTS: In total, 499 neonates were included in the study. The mean birth weight was 1,125 ± 254 g and the gestational age was 29.2 ± 2.5 weeks. The IRS included: RA = 43, O2.RX = 60, n.CPAP/NIPPV = 219, INSURE = 83 and MV ± SURF = 177. In terms of the need for IRS upgrading during hospitalization, neonates not on mechanical ventilation (64.5%) were divided into three groups. In 45.3% of cases, the IRS did not change (Never upgrading); in 24.5% of cases, the level of IRS increased but there was no need for eMV in the first three days of life (Specific); in 24.8% of cases, there was need for eMV within the first three days of life (Absolute) and during hospitalization (after the first three days of life) 5.3% of cases were in need of eMV (General).
In terms of correlation between the effective variables in IRS upgrading, univariable analyses showed that low gestational age, low birth weight, multiple pregnancy, maternal disease, low one-minute Apgar score, and need for surfactant therapy had significant correlation, and multivariable analysis showed that low gestational age, low birth weight and maternal disease were risk factors independently correlated to IRS upgrading, CLD and death.
CONCLUSION: Early use of NIV in preterm neonates with mild to moderate respiratory distress and spontaneous breathing significantly reduced the need for intubation, surfactant, mechanical ventilation and thereby pulmonary and non-pulmonary complications and neonatal mortality.
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ePublished: 01 Mar 2017
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