Arch Iran Med. 2012;15(6):0-0.
PMID: 22642243
Scopus id: 84863111552
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Original Article

Fast Food Consumption in Iranian Adults; Dietary Intake and Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Although fast food consumption has drastically increased in Iran in recent years; there is a paucity of data in relation to the association between fast food consumption, dietary intake, and cardiovascular risk factors. This study aims to determine fast food consumption status among young and middle-aged Iranian adults, and to assess its impact on dietary intake and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors.
METHODS:This cross-sectional population-based study was conducted on 1944 young and middle-aged adults (840 men and 1104 women), who participated in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (2006–2008). We collected dietary data by using a validated 168 item, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Total fast food consumption was calculated by summing up weekly consumption of the most commonly consumed fast foods in Iran.
RESULTS: Mean consumption of fast food was 161g/week (95% CI: 147–175) for young adults and 108 g/week (95% CI: 101–115) for middle-aged adults. Mean dietary intakes of energy, fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, sodium, meat, and soft drinks increased significantly (P < 0.05), while carbohydrate and refined grain consumption decreased (P < 0.01) across tertiles of fast food in both age groups. In young adults, dietary energy density and protein intake increased significantly (P < 0.01) where as intake of non-starchy vegetables and carotenoids decreased (P < 0.05). In middle-aged adults dietary intakes of fiber, folate, calcium, and fruits significantly decreased across fast food tertiles (P < 0.05). After adjustment for confounders, there was an association between fast food consumption and body mass index (BMI; β = 0.104; P < 0.01) and waist circumference (WC; β= 0.083; P < 0.01) in young adults, and serum triglycerides (β = 0.072; P < 0.05), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C; β = -0.051; P < 0.05), and atherogenic index of plasma (β = 0.056; P < 0.05) in middle-aged adults.
CONCLUSION: The results show that increased consumption of fast foods is associated with poor dietary intake and some of the CVD risk factors in Iranian adults.

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